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The world's oldest work of literature, the Epic of Gilgamesh recounts the adventures of the semimythical Sumerian king of Uruk and his ultimately futile quest for immortality after the death of his friend and companion, Enkidu, a wildman sent by the gods. Gilgamesh was deified by the Sumerians around 2500 BCE, and his tale as we know it today was codified in cuneiform tablets around 1750 BCE and continued to influence ancient cultures—whether in specific incidents like a world-consuming flood or in its quest structure—into Roman times. The epic was, however, largely forgotten, until the cuneiform tablets were rediscovered in 1872 in the British Museum's collection of recently unearthed Mesopotamian artifacts. In the decades that followed its translation into modern languages, the Epic of Gilgamesh has become a point of reference throughout Western culture. In Gilgamesh among Us, Theodore Ziolkowski explores the surprising legacy of the poem and its hero, as well as the epic’s continuing influence in modern letters and arts. This influence extends from Carl Gustav Jung and Rainer Maria Rilke's early embrace of the epic's significance—"Gilgamesh is tremendous!" Rilke wrote to his publisher's wife after reading it—to its appropriation since World War II in contexts as disparate as operas and paintings, the poetry of Charles Olson and Louis Zukofsky, novels by John Gardner and Philip Roth, and episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation and Xena: Warrior Princess. Ziolkowski sees fascination with Gilgamesh as a reflection of eternal spiritual values—love, friendship, courage, and the fear and acceptance of death. Noted writers, musicians, and artists from Sweden to Spain, from the United States to Australia, have adapted the story in ways that meet the social and artistic trends of the times. The spirit of this capacious hero has absorbed the losses felt in the immediate postwar period and been infused with the excitement and optimism of movements for gay rights, feminism, and environmental consciousness. Gilgamesh is at once a seismograph of shifts in Western history and culture and a testament to the verities and values of the ancient epic.
Gilgamesh focuses on the eponymous hero of the world’s oldest epic and his legendary adventures. However, it also goes further and examines the significance of the story’s Ancient Near Eastern context, and what it tells us about notions of kingship, animality, and the natures of mortality and immortality. In this volume, Louise M. Pryke provides a unique perspective to consider many foundational aspects of Mesopotamian life, such as the significance of love and family, the conceptualisation of life and death, and the role of religious observance. The final chapter assesses the powerful influence of Gilgamesh on later works of ancient literature, from the Hebrew Bible, to the Odyssey, to The Tales of the Arabian Nights, and his reception through to the modern era. Gilgamesh is an invaluable tool for anyone seeking to understand this fascinating figure, and more broadly, the relevance of Near Eastern myth in the classical world and beyond.
Nationalistic meccas, shrines to popular culture, and sacred traditions for the world's religions from Animism to Zoroastrianism are all examined in two accessible and comprehensive volumes. * More than 500 A–Z entries ranging from the Alamo and Bamiyan to tourism and visual arts * Photographs including worshipers at the Western Wall, pyramids in Egypt, and the Montserrat monastery in Spain illuminate the coverage * Maps including the Hajj, Jerusalem, the journeys of Saint Paul, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre * Includes two appendixes: pilgrimage sites by country and pilgrimage sites by religion, a complete bibiliography, and a thorough index
This book examines 13 movies that deal with the protagonist and his projected “other.” The cinematic Other is interpreted as an unconscious personality, a denied part of the protagonist that appears in his life as a shadowy menace who won’t go away. Devoting a chapter to each movie, the book starts with Mamoulian’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and three cinematic pairs: two Hitchcock films, Shadow of a Doubt and Strangers on a Train; two versions of Cape Fear, J. Lee Thompson’s 1962 original and Martin Scorsese’s 1991 remake; and a pair of Clint Eastwood films, In the Line of Fire and Blood Work. The book then examines Something Wild, Sea of Love, Fight Club, Desperately Seeking Susan, Apocalypse Now and The Lives of Others. Overall the book aims to show how movies envision the unconscious Other we all too often project on other people.
Everyone has heard of the Minotaur in the labyrinth on Crete and many know that the Greek gods would adopt the guise of a bull to seduce mortal women. But what lies behind these legends? The Power of the Bull discusses mankind's enduring obsession with bulls. The bull is an almost universal symbol throughout Indo-European cultures. Bull cults proliferated in the Middle East and in many parts of North Africa, and one cult, Mithraism, was the greatest rival to Christianity in the Roman Empire. The Cults are divergent yet have certain core elements in common. Michael Rice argues that the ancient bulls were the supreme sacrificial animal. An examination of evidence from earliest prehistory onwards reveals the bull to be a symbol of political authority, sexual potency, economic wealth and vast subterranean powers. In some areas representations of the bull have varied little from earliest times, in others it has changed vastly over centuries. This volume provides a well-illustrated and accessible analysis of the exceptionally rich artistic inheritance associated with the bull.
The evolution of the Gilgamesh epic" (1982) / Jeffrey H. Tigay -- From "Gilgamesh in literature and art: the second and first millennia" (1987) / Wilfred G. Lambert -- From "Gilgamesh: sex, love and the ascent of knowledge" (1987) / Benjamin Foster -- "Images of women in the Gilgamesh epic" (1990) / Rivkah Harris -- "The marginalization of the goddesses" (1992) / Tikva Frymer-Kensky -- "Mourning the death of a friend: some assyriological notes" (1993) / Tzvi Abusch -- "Liminality, altered states, and the Gilgamesh epic" (1996) / Sara Mandell -- "Origins: new light on eschatology in Gilgamesh's mortuary journey" (1996) / Raymond J. Clark -- From "a Babylonian in Batavia: Mesopotamian literature and lore in The sunlight dialogues" (1982) / Greg Morris -- "Charles Olson and the poetic uses of Mesopotamian scholarship" / John Maier -- From "'Or also a godly singer, ' Akkadian and early Greek literature" (1984) / Walter Burkert -- From "Gilgamesh and Genesis" (1987) / David Damrosch -- "Praise for death" (1990) / Donald Hall -- From "Gilgamesh in the Arabian nights" (1991) / Stephanie Dalley -- "Ovid's Blanda voluptas and the humanization of Enkidu" (1991) / William L. Moran -- From "the Yahwist's primeval myth" (1992) / Bernard F. Batto -- "Gilgamesh and Philip Roth's Gil Gamesh" (1996) / Marianthe Colakis -- From "The epic of Gilgamesh" (1982) / J. Tracy Luke and Paul W. Pruyser -- From "Gilgamesh and the Sundance Kid: the myth of male friendship" (1987) / Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow -- "Gilgamesh and other epics" (1990) / Albert B. Lord -- From "Reaching for abroad: departures" (1991) / Eric J. Leed -- From "Introduction" to he who saw everything (1991) / Robert Temple -- "The oral aesthetic and the bicameral mind" (1991) / Carl Lindahl -- From "Point of view in anthropological discourse: the ethnographer as Gilgamesh" (1991) / Miles Richardson -- From "The wild man: the epic of Gilgamesh" (1992) / Thomas Van Nortwick.
Since the discovery over one hundred years ago of a body of Mesopotamian poetry preserved on clay tablets, what has come to be known as the Epic of Gilgamesh has been considered a masterpiece of ancient literature. It recounts the deeds of a hero-king of ancient Mesopotamia, following him through adventures and encounters with men and gods alike. Yet the central concerns of the Epic lie deeper than the lively and exotic story line: they revolve around a man’s eternal struggle with the limitations of human nature, and encompass the basic human feelings of lonliness, friendship, love, loss, revenge, and the fear of oblivion of death. These themes are developed in a distinctly Mesopotamian idiom, to be sure, but with a sensitivity and intensity that touch the modern reader across the chasm of three thousand years. This translation presents the Epic to the general reader in a clear narrative.
Contributors from a wide variety of fields, including management, economics, political science, philosophy, sociology, history, literature, and psychology, explore the many facets of leadership. Topics include ethics and accountability, leadership styles, the differences between leadership and management, the poison spread by toxic leaders, inspirational leadership, choosing and monitoring leaders, leadership development, women and minorities in leadership, leadership and diplomacy, leadership in literature and the arts, military leadership, and much more. Collectively, this set showcases traditional and emerging approaches to leadership in both theory and practice and raises new questions brought on by society's new challenges. It also suggests solutions for developing and promoting leadership in the corporate world, politics and diplomacy, religion, education, nonprofits, and the arts. Whether identifying qualities that will serve a U.S. president well, or the characteristics of the essential "can-do" supervisor in today's corporation, Leadership at the Crossroads supplies insights and intelligence that will help leaders make the most of the challenges and opportunities before them.