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Operation FORTITUDE, the D-Day deception plan, was a near perfect plan used by the Allies during World War II to deceive the Germans as to the time and place of the Normandy invasion. This short research paper studies the methods and techniques used by the Allies, specifically the British Security Services, in the near flawless execution of the deception plan. This paper also proposes that the plan was so well executed because it was a “closed loop” plan. That is to say that the British controlled not only the information going forward to the Germans, but they were also in the enviable position of being able to determine the exact extent of the Germans’ belief in the veracity of the information that they were given. This was due to two factors: the British had complete control of all German agents in England by the second year of the war, and the British were able to read encrypted German message traffic, often as fast as the intended recipients. In the final analysis, the Germans were completely outmaneuvered in the intelligence department during the Second World War. Through sloppy work on their part and the amazingly well manufactured deception story put forth by the Allies, the Germans were essentially blind while trying to defend the Normandy beaches. The research for this paper was conducted solely using open-source material. Many of these were secondary sources, though others were recently declassified operational documents from the British and United States historical records.
The most comprehensive and authoritative history of D-Day ever published ‘Extraordinary’ Andrew Roberts ‘Fascinating’ Daily Mail ‘Magisterial’ James Holland ________________ 6 June 1944, 4 a.m. Hundreds of boats assemble off the coast of France. By nightfall, thousands of the men they carry will be dead. This was D-Day, the most important day of the twentieth century. In Sand and Steel, one of Britain’s leading military historians offers a panoramic new account of the Allied invasion of France. Drawing on a decade of new research, Peter Caddick-Adams masterfully recreates what it was like to wade out onto the carnage of Omaha Beach, or parachute behind enemy lines in Normandy. He explores the year-long preparations that went into the invasion, overturning decades-old assumptions about Allied strategy. And he pays tribute to the remarkable individuals who made D-Day possible – not just soldiers on the beaches, but also paratroopers, sailors, aircrews, and women on the Home Front. The result is a compulsively readable account of the greatest battle of the Second World War. It will be the definitive work on D-Day for years to come. ________________ ‘A hugely impressive book which makes full use of a lifetime of learning and experience.’ Herald ‘Peter Caddick-Adams’ D-Day must surely go down as the definitive narrative of that pivotal moment in the history of the war.’ James Holland ‘This is a warts-and-all forensic examination of the Allied invasion, offering stacks of insight based on a decade of research.’ Soldier
Where was the Luftwaffe on D-Day? Following decades of debate, 2010 saw a formerly classified history restored and in it was a new set of answers. Pointblank is the result of extensive new research that creates a richly textured portrait of perhaps the last untold story of D-Day: three uniquely talented men and why the German Air Force was unable to mount an effective combat against the invasion forces. Following a year of unremarkable bombing against German aircraft industries, General Henry H. "Hap†? Arnold, commander of the U.S. Army Air Forces, placed his lifelong friend General Carl A. "Tooey†? Spaatz in command of the strategic bombing forces in Europe, and his protégé, General James "Jimmy†? Doolittle, command of the Eighth Air Force in England. For these fellow aviation strategists, he had one set of orders – sweep the skies clean of the Luftwaffe by June 1944. Spaatz and Doolittle couldn't do that but they could clear the skies sufficiently to gain air superiority over the D-Day beaches. The plan was called Pointblank.
Since 9/11, the U.S. government and the private sector have devised sophisticated ways of protecting people and assets. The threats have evolved, however, becoming more insidious. They no longer comprise just terrorists who target critical infrastructures. They also include insider threats, such as PFC Manning and NSA contractor Snowden who leaked classified defense information, active shooter incidents like the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre, and the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist bombing. These events make it imperative for the public and private sectors to engage in effective partnership to protect people, facilities, and national infrastructure assets. Homeland Security and Private Sector Business: Corporations' Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection, Second Edition identifies the role the private sector plays in securing our homeland and offers strategies to aid in the fight against national and international threats. Addressing mandates and legislation introduced since the first edition, this new edition includes: Updates to the NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) New case studies of both proper security policies and procedures in practice versus costly security breaches Greater focus on smaller business and practical "immediate use" guidance New measures for assessing and addressing vulnerabilities and threats New appendices with sample plans and practical checklists Supplying tools that can easily be adapted and applied to every business situation at all budget levels, the book helps businesses counter the total threat, from traditional terrorists to inside betrayers—providing a clear blueprint for securing people and assets.
The objective was to persuade the enemy that the long-awaited landings would take place in the Pas-de-Calais, and that any attack in Normandy would be nothing more than a diversionary feint that could be safely ignored. Hundreds of bogus agent reports were manufactured, an entire US Army Group was invented, false radio signals transmitted, and inflatable tanks, dummy bombers built of balsa wood and canvas landing craft were positioned where they could be photographed by the Luftwaffe. Each itemed an imminent amphibious assault from Dover, across the shortest stretch of the English Channel. Operation Fortitude was an extraordinary success. In this volume, the classified official history of the entire operation, written by Roger Hesketh as head of the team of D-Day deception specialists, has been declassified and released.
From the US Department of Defense, the Skills, Tactics, and Traits of the Most Highly Skilled Soldiers in the World—Army Rangers. This handbook offers the techniques and tactics that make U.S. Army Rangers the best soldiers in the world. These highly trained, easily deployable, and widely skilled infantrymen specialize in airborne assault, raids, recovery of personnel and equipment, and airfield seizure, among other difficult and dangerous missions. Now, in this recently revised edition of the U.S. Army Ranger Handbook, you can get the latest info on everything from understanding the basics of Army operations and tactics to discovering what makes a soldier with good leadership qualities and character. Although primarily written for Rangers and other light infantry units, it serves as a handy reference for all military units, covering how infantry squad- and platoon-sized elements conduct combat operations in varied terrains. Drawing from over two centuries of lessons learned in special operations combat, this guide provides modern soldiers with best training possible. It effectively combines the lessons of the past with important insights for the future to help make army leaders the absolute best they can be. In straightforward, no-frills language, it covers deception, stealth, communications, escape and evasion, ambush operations, perimeter defense, counterintelligence, and much more. This book is the ultimate resource for anyone who wants to know how Rangers think and function.
This book brings together experienced military leaders and researchers in the human sciences to offer current operational experience and scientific thought on the issue of military command, with the intention of raising awareness of the uniquely human aspects of military command. It includes chapters on the personal experiences of senior commanders, new concepts and treatises on command theory, and empirical findings from experimental studies in the field.
Jonathan Fennell captures for the first time the true wartime experience of the ordinary soldiers from across the empire who made up the British and Commonwealth armies. He analyses why the great battles were won and lost and how the men that fought went on to change the world.