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During the last three decades, interest has increased significantly in the representation and manipulation of imprecision and uncertainty. Perhaps the most important technique in this area concerns fuzzy logic or the logic of fuzziness initiated by L. A. Zadeh in 1965. Since then, fuzzy logic has been incorporated into many areas of fundamental science and into the applied sciences. More importantly, it has been successful in the areas of expert systems and fuzzy control. The main body of this book consists of so-called IF-THEN rules, on which experts express their knowledge with respect to a certain domain of expertise. Fuzzy IF-THEN Rules in Computational Intelligence: Theory and Applications brings together contributions from leading global specialists who work in the domain of representation and processing of IF-THEN rules. This work gives special attention to fuzzy IF-THEN rules as they are being applied in computational intelligence. Included are theoretical developments and applications related to IF-THEN problems of propositional calculus, fuzzy predicate calculus, implementations of the generalized Modus Ponens, approximate reasoning, data mining and data transformation, techniques for complexity reduction, fuzzy linguistic modeling, large-scale application of fuzzy control, intelligent robotic control, and numerous other systems and practical applications. This book is an essential resource for engineers, mathematicians, and computer scientists working in fuzzy sets, soft computing, and of course, computational intelligence.
"A must-read--a gorgeous literary novel that asks us to imagine all the possible versions of ourselves that might exist."--J. Courtney Sullivan, New York Times bestselling author of Saints for All Occasions The residents of a sleepy mountain town are rocked by troubling visions of an alternate reality in this dazzling debut that combines the family-driven suspense of Celeste Ng's Little Fires Everywhere with the inventive storytelling of The Immortalists. In the quiet haven of Clearing, Oregon, four neighbors find their lives upended when they begin to see themselves in parallel realities. Ginny, a devoted surgeon whose work often takes precedence over her family, has a baffling vision of a beautiful co-worker in Ginny's own bed and begins to doubt the solidity of her marriage. Ginny's husband, Mark, a wildlife scientist, sees a vision that suggests impending devastation and grows increasingly paranoid, threatening the safety of his wife and son. Samara, a young woman desperately mourning the recent death of her mother and questioning why her father seems to be coping with such ease, witnesses an apparition of her mother healthy and vibrant and wonders about the secrets her parents may have kept from her. Cass, a brilliant scholar struggling with the demands of new motherhood, catches a glimpse of herself pregnant again, just as she's on the brink of returning to the project that could define her career. At first the visions are relatively benign, but they grow increasingly disturbing--and, in some cases, frightening. When a natural disaster threatens Clearing, it becomes obvious that the visions were not what they first seemed and that the town will never be the same. Startling, deeply imagined, and compulsively readable, Kate Hope Day's debut novel is about the choices we make that shape our lives and determine our destinies--the moments that alter us so profoundly that it feels as if we've entered another reality. Praise for If, Then "Hope Day has a lot of sly, stealthy fun with time-bending and parallel universes, but she also has serious things to say on urban paranoia, climate change and the atomized nature of modern life."--Daily Mail "If, Then has the narrative propulsion of a television show . . . [It's] a whirlwind of a story."--Chicago Review of Books "Effortlessly meshing the dreamlike and the realistic, [Kate Hope] Day's well-crafted mix of literary and speculative fiction is an enthralling meditation on the interconnectedness of all things."--Publishers Weekly (starred review)
The title of this book and of the Architecture League's 23rd Young Architects Forum (an annual competition, exhibition, and publication of work), is derived from the language of computer programming. "If.then" is the contingent phrase that is built into the architecture of programming.
We live in a world in which Google's search algorithms determine how we access information, Facebook's News Feed algorithms shape how we socialize, and Netflix collaborative filtering algorithms choose the media products we consume. As such, we live algorithmic lives. Life, however, is not blindly controlled or determined by algorithms. Nor are we simply victims of an ever-expanding artificial intelligence. Rather than looking at how technologies shape or are shaped by political institutions, this book is concerned with the ways in which informational infrastructure may be considered political in its capacity to shape social and cultural life. It looks specifically at the conditions of algorithmic life -- how algorithms work, both materially and discursively, to create the conditions for sociality and connectivity. The book argues that the most important aspect of algorithms is not what they are in terms of their specific technical details but rather how they become part of social practices and how different people enlist them as powerful brokers of information, communication and society. If we truly want to engage with the promises of automation and predictive analytics entailed by the promises of "big data", we also need to understand the contours of algorithmic life that condition such practices. Setting out to explore both the specific uses of algorithms and the cultural forms they generate, this book offers a novel understanding of the power and politics of algorithmic life as grounded in case studies that explore the material-discursive dimensions of software.
Many, if not most, business surprises are negative ones. They often cause setbacks that require time, energy, and resources just to get the organization back to where it had once been. The pragmatic approach to managing the causes of these lurking setbacks described in IF..., Then... is a proven method for achieving goals without the burden of these negative surprises. The Protect-Biz risk management planning process is specifically designed for busy people with other things to do. It shatters conventional wisdom, especially when it comes to the threshold for entry into effectively managing the potential obstacles between you and your goals. Its mantra is "identify, avoid, and anticipate--and then get back to work." No costly specialists, no expensive software needed. Protect-Biz leads the entrepreneur, the executive, and the manager to risk management self-sufficiency and independence with very little initial investment in terms of dollars and time.
(Vocal Selections). A dozen selections from this Tony Award-nominated hit Broadway musical starring Idina Menzel, presented in vocal lines with piano accompaniment. Includes: Always Starting Over * Best Worst Mistake * Here I Go * It's a Sign * Love While You Can * Some Other Me * What Would You Do? * You Don't Need to Love Me * You Never Know * and more. Also includes an intro by Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey and bios of each.
To metaphorize the world as a theatre has been a common procedure since antiquity, but the use of this trope became particularly prominent and pregnant in early modern times, especially in England. Old and new applications of the “theatrum mundi” topos pervaded discourses, often allegorizing the deceitfulness and impermanence of this world as well as the futility of earthly strife. It was frequently woven into arguments against worldly amusements such as the stage: Commercial theatre was declared an undesirable competitor of God’s well-ordered world drama. Early modern dramatists often reacted to this development by appropriating the metaphor, and in an ingenious twist, some playwrights even appropriated its anti-theatrical impetus: Early modern theatre seemed to discover a denial of its own theatricality at its very core. Drama was found to succeed best when it staged itself as a great unmasking. To investigate the reasons and effects of these developments, the anthology examines the metaphorical uses of theatre in plays, pamphlets, epics, treatises, legal proclamations and other sources.
James has a scar in the back of his head. It’s where he was wounded in the Battle of Suvla Bay on August 1915. Or is the scar the mark of his implant that allows the Process to fill his mind with its own reality? In IF, the people of a small English town cling on after everything fell apart under the protection of the Process, the computer system that runs every aspect of their lives. But sometimes people must be evicted from the town. That’s the job of James, the bailiff. While on patrol, James discovers the replica of a soldier from the First World War wandering the South Downs. This strange meeting begins a new cycle of evictions in the town, while out on the rolling downland, the Process is methodically growing the soldiers and building the weapons required to relive a long lost battle. In THEN, it is August 1915, at the Battle of Suvla Bay in the Dardanelles campaign. Compared to the thousands of allied soldiers landing on this foreign beach, the men of the 32nd Field Ambulance are misfits and cranks of every stripe: a Quaker pacifist, a freethinking padre, a meteorologist, and the private (once a bailiff) known simply as James. Exposed to constant shellfire and haunted by ghostly snipers, the stretcher-bearers work day and night on the long carry of wounded men. One night they stumble across an ancient necropolis, disturbed by an exploding shell. What they discover within this ancient site will make them question the reality of the war and shake their understanding of what it means to be human…